There is much new knowledge about Buddhism coming from fields as diverse as archaeology, philology, etymology and meditative practice, all of which have helped provide an authentic historical context for our own study and practice of Buddhism. We had a wonderful opportunity to put that rich context to use in the recent seventeen-day vipassana meditation retreat at the DCC led by the Theravadan Buddhist monk Sayadaw U Vivekananda. The precious insights from the retreat have helped illuminate our understanding of Buddhism. In this article, we offer several examples of this new research and its value as we study, practice and live the Buddha’s Teaching (Buddhavacana).
Our first example comes from Richard Salomon, a researcher of early Buddhism. He notes the big controversy in linguistic circles about the origin history of writing in early India. Salomon avers that there was a form of writing in proto-historic India going back to the 3rd millennium BCE, the Indus Valley script which is undeciphered and still completely mysterious. Then there was a period of well over a thousand years in which there were no written artifacts. And it’s only during the time of the Asoka emperor in the 3rd century BCE that clearly datable, definite specimens of writing appear in the scripts that became the parent of all the later scripts of the Indian world. Clear specimens of writing dating to around the middle of the 3rd century BCE have been found. Quite a few scholars believe that this form of ‘parent’ writing of later Indian scripts was invented by or during the reign of Asoka, and that there was no writing before that. That has come under question recently. Salomon notes that there is some evidence or reasonable claims of specimens of writing going back to the early 3rd or even into the 4th century BCE. But this is still not back to the time of the Buddha. Thus, it appears that the Buddha lived in a culture where writing was not present; or even if writing were present, he and his followers did not use it as a means of preserving text. In effect, Salomon notes the general agreement among scholars that early Buddhism was a purely oral tradition. Texts were preserved and transmitted by memory and recitation.
Our next example concerns a famous story recounted in the Vinaya, the collection of monastic rules in the Tipitaka, or three collections of the Buddha’s Teaching. According to this tale, there were two Brahmin brothers who had been converted to Buddhism and they were concerned that there were monks ‘of a variety of origins and of family backgrounds’ who were corrupting the word of the Buddha by reciting His Teachings, each in their own way. ‘Let us remedy the situation’, the brothers suggested to the Buddha, ‘by putting the words of the Buddha into chandas’, i.e. into meter and verse as in the style of recitation used for Vedic texts. The brothers seemed to be arguing for doing something more elegant, more standardized, more familiar with the Buddha’s Teachings so that there wouldn’t be, to paraphrase their apparent opinions, this riff-raff with their local accents and local dialects messing up this important stuff.
The Buddha’s response to the brothers’ suggestion, whatever exactly is the nuance with this word chandas, is not at all ambiguous. He forbad the recitation of his Teachings in chandas whether that meant versified, ornate text or whether it meant the actual Vedic language. But then he instructed his followers: ‘Teach the word of the Buddha, each in your own language.’ Teach in whatever vernacular the local people will understand. To put it in Indian terms, use the Prakrit languages. And that is exactly what the Buddhists seemed to have done in the early centuries. There were many Prakrits spoken at that time, Magadhi being one among them. Prakrit is a term applied to the vernaculars spoken in Middle Indic languages in contrast to Sanskrit, the language of the Vedas and the oldest scriptural language of Hinduism. The Prakrits bore the same relationship with Sanskrit as the Romance languages of French, Spanish and Italian do with Latin.
And this is understood as the Buddha’s prescription that his words were translatable. Salomon notes that this direction of the Buddhist tradition is in sharp contrast to that of the Judaic and Islamic traditions where the original languages are essential to their sacred texts. Buddhism is more like Christianity, a language of a religion of translation. Thus, as Buddhism spread across India, it got translated into the local languages; and the original language form – Magadhi - is simply gone. And there really is no reason to hope that it would ever be recovered.
A third example begins with the question: In what language did the Buddha teach? It was commonly assumed that he had taught in Pāli, the scriptural language of Theravadan Buddhism, and that Pāli was synonymous with Magadhi, the old language of Magadha, the capital or political centre of NE India at the time and his birthplace. Old Magadhi was not the only language then spoken in old India or north India. And it seems likely that the Buddha could speak in more than one language.
From a linguist’s point of view however, Magadhi was known from inscriptions and other literatures to be an eastern Prakrit with very different features from Pāli. Etymological specialists have discovered a peculiar feature of Pāli. It exhibits some eastern and a majority of western Prakriti features including some terminology that is thought to go back to old Magadhi itself. In other words, Pāli is a hybrid language containing a peculiar mixture of dialectical forms. Not only did the Buddha not speak Pāli; no one spoke Pāli! Pāli is an artificial language cobbled together from a variety of spoken languages for the purpose of disseminating the Buddha’s Teachings across dialectical or perhaps language lines. It was a compromise language made up of pieces of languages in India at the time. It was used originally and only for religious texts, not only for the canonical texts attributed to the Buddha but later for commentaries and history texts like the Dīpavaṃsa from the 3rd or 4th century CE or the Mahāvaṃsa from the 5th century CE, which were composed in Sri Lanka to recount the history of Buddhism and in the process the history of Sri Lanka.
The word Pāli is the subject of a very old misunderstanding in mediaeval Asian traditions. The word doesn’t appear in the Pāli Tipitaka (the three baskets of the Pāli Canon). It’s a commentarial word that comes from a later layer of Buddhist literature. And when it did appear, the phrase it appeared in was pālibhāsā, the language of the canonical texts (pāli line, row, canon + bhāsā language). Pāli was not a language name; it meant scriptural or religious text. This was a textual language created for a very specific purpose. At some point, Asian Buddhists began to misunderstand this. They forgot that pāli meant texts and began to use it as the name of the language itself. If it had a name, it probably would have been something like Buddhist Hybrid Prakrit.
Another very important example concerns the enormously significant innovation achieved by the ancient Buddhists. They took the Buddha’s Teaching from an oral tradition to a system of writing in the 2nd century CE in Sri Lanka through the invention of the scriptural language of Pāli and the massive effort of compiling and translating into this new hybrid language the Suttas (discourses of the Buddha), the Vinaya (monastic rules) and Abhidhamma (the Higher Teachings). Similar translation work had been taking place in Gandhāra from about the 1st century BCE. Gandhāra was a small region lying about where Peshawar is today in northern Pakistan, approximately between the modern Afghanistan border on the west and the Indus River on the east.
Jan Nattier notes that it was Buddhism that first brought written scriptural texts to the entire South Asian religious civilization. Buddhism’s introduction of a written textual tradition to its oral tradition was an enormous contribution to the availability and status of religious knowledge in Indian culture and later to the entire world. These were not just the oldest Buddhist texts; they were the oldest Indian written texts aside from inscriptions on rocks. And this innovation took place on the fringes of the Indian subcontinent in Sri Lanka and Gandhāra, and only later trickled back into India, likely because of the resistance of the Brahmanical tradition for a very long time. In this respect, Nattier notes that the Upanishads were not translated until the 15th century or so and only under Persian influence; and the Vedas even later and only under British pressure.
Before we turn our attention to the modern era, another noteworthy fact should be mentioned. The texts of the Pāli Canon and other commentaries were all transcribed on palm leaves in Sri Lanka. In the tropics, this meant that their survival required repeated copying on fresh palm leaves over each generation to ensure their preservation. In the cooler, temperate climate of Gandhāra, scriptural texts were written on birch bark, a medium which allowed longer survival periods. These birch bark manuscripts were rolled up, placed in clay pots and buried under stupas; and only unearthed by archaeologists in the past two centuries. A team of linguists led by Richard Salomon have been kept busy over the past quarter century with the painstaking work of reassembling the crumbling scrolls, and deciphering and translating the ancient Gandhāri texts.
DCC members will be interested to learn that in the early seventies, the Dalai Lama approached James George, the then Canadian High Commissioner to India for assistance in preserving the scriptural manuscripts of the various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, whose survival was now being threatened by the tropical Indian climate. George had been instrumental in resettling several hundred Tibetan refugees in southern Ontario at the time, and was a good friend of the Dalai Lama and Tibetan Buddhism. George hired a Canadian student working on a CUSO (Canadian University Students Overseas) scholarship to work in the basement of the New Delhi offices of the Commissioner. Over the span of a year or more, the student created microfiche copies of all the manuscripts. The originals and microfiche copies were returned to the Dalai Lama. Later, Kalu Rinpoche donated the Karma Kagyu School’s microfiche copies to the DCC for safe keeping. Lama Sonam Gyatso has overseen this task. Recently, he began the work of digitizing the microfiche copies since they too were beginning to deteriorate with age. Once the first ‘batch’ of work had been completed, I had the pleasure of taking Lama Sonam to meet Jim George, now in his late nineties, to honour him for this meritorious labor in support of the Dalai Lama and Tibetan Buddhism. The work of digitizing the remaining manuscripts is an ongoing responsibility of DCC Archivist Bill Rolph and donations to complete this work are invited.
Skipping forward in time to our next example, we learn from Anthony Warder that the Arab and Turkish conquests from the 10th to the 12th century CE destroyed most of the early schools of Buddhism, the main centres of which had remained in Magadha and North West India. To which could be added a further thought from the Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi: “The Buddhists in India were not attacked by Hindu armies. However, a resurgent Hinduism engaged Buddhists in debates and revived the Vedic and Brahmanic traditions. Since the Brahmins offered more rituals and ceremonies relevant to the cycles of household life than the Buddhists did, they gained a stronger following. The rise of devotional Hinduism also proved popular, to the detriment of the Buddhists. By the 10th and 11th centuries, Buddhism had become largely confined to the monasteries, which were supported by royal patronage and wealthy donors; thus, it was cut off from contact with ordinary people, which opened the gates to the Hindu resurgence. In the 11th century, the Muslim hordes swept into India and killed the Buddhist monks and destroyed their monasteries and libraries. Since Buddhism was highly dependent on the monasteries, it could no longer be sustained and died out in India. But because Hinduism pervaded the lives of ordinary people more extensively, it proved more resistant to the Muslim campaigns of conversion.”
In this next example, we learn about the development of Buddhism through mediaeval times. From its stronghold in Sri Lanka, the form of the Buddha’s Teaching later termed Theravadan Buddhism moved eastward to Burma, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. The Pāli Canon was preserved in Sinhala script in Sri Lanka; and was reproduced in Burmese and Thai scripts in those lands. In time, their indigenous languages became suffused with Pāli vocabulary. Buddhist philosophy and psychology began to influence the lives and perspectives of ordinary people in the Theravadan countries; monasteries were built to provide shelter for the growing, predominantly male monastic communities as well as centres for study, meditation, devotional practice and teaching purposes. A similar phenomenon accompanied the migration of the newer strain of Mahayana Buddhism across Central Asia to Tibet, China, Korea and Japan. In the process, a Tibetan Canon and Chinese Canon were set down in writing in those lands. The three Canons became thereby the only more or less complete scriptural texts of the Buddha’s Teaching in the world.
In his recently published doctoral thesis, Erik Braun aptly characterizes the traditional life of people in mediaeval Buddhist lands: Prior to the colonial era, in Burma as in other Theravada cultures, some monks and even some laypeople studied meditation as a scholarly topic, but this did not lead to its widespread practice. Rather than meditate, monks mostly studied, taught, and acted as “fields of merit” (puññakhetta), that is, suitable recipients of the charity of lay people, traditionally provided in the form of food and robes. In turn, the laity focused on cultivating good karma (kamma in Pāli) through generosity and virtuous behavior. Both groups oriented their actions around the Buddha as a figure of devotion, still present in his relics.
The next example concerns the modern development of meditative practice. Braun notes that meditation nowadays is regarded by many people as Buddhism’s synecdoche. Many Buddhists and non-Buddhists alike assume that most Buddhists meditate. Yet, mass meditation, by both monks and laypeople, was born in Burma only in the early years of the twentieth century and at a scale never seen before in Buddhist history. He contends that one person, a Burmese monk named Ledi Sayadaw (1846-1923), played a leading role in the rise of Buddhist meditation.
During Ledi’s lifetime, many people believed the prediction of the scriptures that the Buddha’s Teaching (the Sāsana or Doctrine) was in decline and would soon disappear under colonial influence. The British conquest of Burma proceeded in three stages: the southern annexation in 1826, lower Burma in 1852 and upper Burma in 1856. This protracted conquest gave the Burmese time to observe the disruptive effects of British power. These included the zealous activities of Christian missionaries to convert the populace whom they regarded as mired in superstition. In response, Ledi launched a two-prong initiative to protect Buddhism by dispersing its study and practice throughout the Burmese laity. He focussed the study of doctrine on the Abhidhamma; and of practice through simplified forms of meditation.
The teachings on meditative practice found in the canonical texts and their commentarial literature were organized into a massive compendium, the Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga) in the 5th century CE by the monk Buddhaghosa. This treatise describes forty calming and concentration practices (samatha) as well as nine insight knowledge practices (vipassana). It is understood that a certain level of concentration should be established in order to undertake the mindful observation (sati) of the three characteristics of all phenomena, impermanence (anicca), unsatisfactoriness (dukkha) and non-essence (anatta), a meditative practice which leads ultimately to realization. Ledi promoted the benefits of insight meditation practice for lay people in all walks of life. Braun notes the critical role played by Ledi’s ‘capacious formulation’ of practice in shaping a collective, lay-centered model of meditation on a mass scale that became firmly embedded in the Burmese culture.
Throughout the Buddhist world, lineage has always been a primary element in establishing religious authority. A teacher is considered legitimate if he can place himself in an unbroken line back to the Buddha. Braun notes that many of the current meditation movements originating in Burma locate the starting points of their recorded histories only in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Several practice lineages, including the S.N. Goenka organization, claim Ledi as their root teacher. When asked who Ledi Sayadaw’s teacher was, Goenka said: ‘There is no recorded history, but Ledi Sayadaw says he learnt this technique from a monk in Mandalay.’
The monk U Narada (1868-1955), known as the Mingun Sayadaw, another early proponent of lay meditation, also searched for a method of practice and met a monk in the famous meditation-caves in the hills above the town of Sagaing in Upper Burma. This monk directed him to study the Buddha’s teachings in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (the Greater Discourse on the Establishment of Mindfulness).,  Mingun Sayadaw was the teacher of Mahasi Sayadaw (1904-1982) who is credited with disseminating his master’s style of lay meditation throughout Burma and around the world.
Mahasi’s work has continued under his student Sayadaw U Pandita (1921-2016). Sayadaw U Vivekananda, the leader of two DCC vipassana retreats in 2015 and 2019 and my teacher, trained under U Pandita in Myanmar. U Pandita installed Vivekananda as the resident teacher at Panditarama Lumbini International Vipassana Meditation Center in Lumbini, Nepal, the Birthplace of the Buddha in the late nineties. U Pandita has also given him permission to leave his post at Panditarama Lumbini for up to ninety days every year in order to conduct international retreats.
Our final example comes from our May, 2019 DCC retreat. In his evening Dhamma Talks, Sayadaw systematically reviewed the characteristic aspects of mindful contemplation of the four foundations of mindfulness described in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta. He addressed a key insight knowledge, Knowledge of the Dissolution of Objects (from the Visuddhimagga, Ch. XXI, Purification by Knowledge and Vision) during one of his last Talks. He drew our attention to a Dhammapada verse and its counterpart in the Suttanipata:
Dhammapada, Verse 170
[Translated by Daw Mya Tin, Myanmar Pitaka Ass’n., Yangon, Myanmar]
If a man looks at the world (i.e. the five khandas),
In the same way as one looks at a bubble or a mirage,
The King of Death will not find him.
The Sutta Nipata (Sn 5.15)
[Translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1997]
This Sutta reports a conversation between the Buddha and the Brahman Mogharaja with a point similar to that of Dhp Verse 170:
In what way does one view the world
so as not to be seen by Death's king?
View the world, Mogharaja, as empty,
always mindful to have removed any view about self.
This way one is above and beyond death.
This is the way one views the world
so as not to be seen by Death's king.
Several times during his Talk, Sayadaw stressed the essential importance of mastering this insight knowledge, specifically the ability to witness the ending of objects (phenomena) as they present themselves in the mind. Accomplishing this undertaking will hasten our passage to Nibbana, he insisted. I thought this profound teaching is an appropriate place to finish this brief and highly selective survey of the contributions of modern-day scholarship and teachers to our understanding of Buddhism and Sayadaw U Vivekananda’s participation in this grand effort to awaken the world.
August 20, 2019
 Richard Salomon is Professor of Asian Languages and Literature at the University of Washington and a leading figure in the field pf early Buddhist studies.
 Richard Salomon: The Buddhist Literature of Ancient Gandhāra: An Introduction with Selected Translations. Wisdom Publications Inc., Somerville, Mass. 2018. Also, listen to audio podcast of Salomon interview: https://vimeo.com/263106314.
 From: The Buddhist Monastic Code II: The Khandaka Rules. Translated & Explained by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. 3rd Edition. Valley Center, CA: Metta Forest Monastery, 2013, pp.100-101, 107. [https://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/index.html#bmc2]
The controversy about dialect is addressed by a rule on teaching Dhamma in the Vinaya Pitaka. The rule is addressed in the fifth Khandhaka of the Cullavagga: The Khandhakas (literally, “Collections”) form the second major portion of the Vinaya Pitaka, following the Sutta Vibhaṅga and preceding the Parivāra. There are 22 Khandhakas in all, divided into two groups: the Mahāvagga (Mv.), or Great Chapter, composed of ten Khandhakas; and the Cullavagga (Cv.), or Lesser Chapter, composed of twelve. Each Khandhaka is loosely organized around a major topic, with minor topics inserted in a fairly haphazard fashion.
The rule states: “The speech of the Awakened One is not to be raised into meter (a Veda). Whoever should do so: an offense of wrong doing. I allow that the speech of the Awakened One be learned in one’s own dialect.” (Cv.V.33.1).
Cv.V.33.1 reports the efforts of two brahman bhikkhus who set the Buddha’s teachings to meter after objecting to the fact that bhikkhus who had gone forth from different clans, different nationalities, different families were spoiling the Buddha’s words by putting it in “own dialect” (sakkaya niruttiyā). The Buddha however forbade that his teachings be set to meter and allowed that they be learned by each in “own dialect.”
There are two controversies surrounding these two rules. The first is over the meaning of ‘own dialect’. The Commentary insists that it means the Buddha’s own dialect, and that therefore the Dhamma must be memorized in Pali. The context of the story, however, suggests that own dialect means each bhikkhu’s own native dialect. The original reference to bhikkhus of different clans, etc., was a snobbish one (the same phrase shows up in the snobbish comments of Ven. Channa in the origin story to Sg 12), and the two brahman bhikkhus were objecting to the lowly nature of some of the dialects spoken by their fellow bhikkhus. Otherwise, their reference to bhikkhus of different clans, etc., would make no sense in the context of the origin story: The other bhikkhus would have been just as likely to mangle the Buddha’s teachings in metrical form as they would had they tried to memorize them in the Buddha’s own dialect. Also, it is hard to imagine them making a sneering reference to “own dialect” in the Buddha’s presence if, by that, they meant his own dialect. There is epigraphic evidence showing that Pali was not the Buddha’s original dialect—it was instead related to the dialect of Avanti, the area from which Ven. Mahinda left on his mission to Sri Lanka. If the bhikkhus were required to memorize the Buddha’s teachings in the latter’s own dialect, those teachings would never have been put into Pali. So, the allowance must have been for bhikkhus to memorize the Buddha’s teachings each in his own dialect. In showing respect for the Dhamma, there is thus no need to state it in Pali.
The second controversy centers on what is meant by setting the teachings to meter. The Commentary states that it means translating them into a Sanskrit text “like a Veda,” and here the Commentary seems on more solid ground. However, its explanation needs to be further refined for the Buddha’s prohibition to make sense. Meter (chandas) was a Sanskrit term for the Vedas. Thus, to set (literally, “raise”) the Buddha’s teaching into meter meant turning it not just into a text like a Veda, but into an actual Veda, with all the long-term limitations that that would have entailed. After the passage of a few generations, only specialists would be in a position to understand and interpret it. Because the brahmans had made a specialty of mastering the Vedas, the “Buddha-veda” most likely would have become their exclusive possession, subject to interpretations that would have favored their caste. Also, the Buddha’s words would not have easily spread outside of India. Thus, to avoid these limitations, the Buddha forbade that his teachings be turned into a Veda, and instead allowed his followers to memorize the Dhamma each in his own language.
 Oskar von Hinüber: A Handbook of Pali Literature. De Gruyter Publications Inc., Berlin; 1996.
 See Wikipedia entry: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dipavamsa.
 William Geiger: The Mahāvaṃsa or The Great Chronicle of Ceylon. Ceylon Gov’t. Info. Dept., Columbo. 1960. Also, see the Wikipedia entry: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahavamsa.
 K.R. Norman: The Pāḷi Language and the Theravādin Tradition. In: A History of Indian Literature Vol. VII, Facs. 2, Pāli Literature, 1983. (http://www.ahandfulofleaves.org/documents/Articles/The%20Pali%20Language%20and%20the%20Theravadin%20Tradition_Norman_1983.pdf)
 For information of the Abhidhamma Pitaka or the Basket of the Abhidhamma see: https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/abhi/index.html.
 Gandhāra essentially was a small area lying about where Peshawar is today in a river valley of the Peshawar river, approximately between the modern Afghanistan border on the west and the Indus River on the east. While a small area, it was strategically located on the frontier line between the Indian world, the world of Iran and of Central Asia beyond. In his book, Salomon distinguishes between Gandhāra proper, the small area delineated above, and Greater Gandhāra, the much larger region under the cultural influence of Gandhāra at that time. Basically, that means it is the region in which the local vernacular Gandhāri became the principal language during the first two or three centuries of the CE. Bamiyan is within the Greater Gandhāran area of influence. This was a period when a series of kingdoms and empires were established, mostly by immigrants or invaders from the west and north, particularly the Kushan dynasty from about the mid-first century into the early fourth century CE which had transregional influence in the development of Greater Gandhāra.
 See the Wikipedia entry for the Upanishads: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upanishads.
 See the Wikipedia entry for the Vedas: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedas.
 From a video of a Keynote Address by Jan Nattier entitled The Proto-History of Buddhist Translation: From Gāndhārī and Pāli to Han-Dynasty Chinese, given at the Translation &Transmission Conference of the Tsadra Foundation, Boulder, Colorado. June 2, 2017. [http://conference-wp.tsadra.org/session/the-proto-history-of-buddhist-translation-from-gandhari-and-pali-to-han-dynasty-chinese/]
 Salomon, 2018. Ibid.
 A.K. Warder: Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, New Delhi, 2008.
 From Email correspondence with the Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi, April 19, 2015.
 Erik Braun: The Birth of Insight: Meditation, Modern Buddhism, and the Burmese Monk Ledi Sayadaw. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 2013. p.2.
 Braun, 2013; Ibid, p.3.
 Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa: The Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga). Translated from the Pāli by Bhikkhu Ñāņamoli. BPS Pariyatti Editions, an imprint of Pariyatti Publishing, Onalaska Washington, 1991.
 Braun, 2013; Ibid, pp.5-6.
 Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (the Greater Discourse on the Establishment of Mindfulness). Sutta 22 in the Digha Nikaya: The Long Discourses of the Buddha. Translated from the Pāli by Maurice Walshe., Wisdom Publications, Somerville, Mass. 1995.
 Braun, 2013; Ibid, p.8.
 Nyanaponika Thera: The Heart of Buddhist Meditation: A Handbook of Mental Training based on the Buddha’s Way of Mindfulness. Samuel Weiser, Inc., New York. 1996.
The practice of all the bodhisattvas is to take to solitary places,
Avoiding the unwholesome, so that destructive emotions gradually fade away,
And, in the absence of distraction, virtuous practice naturally gains strength;
Whilst, with awareness clearly focused, we gain conviction in the teachings.
Gyalse Tokme Zangpo
From June 10 to 23, I had the pleasure of attending a retreat with Lama Mark Webber (Chokyi Gyaltsen) at the Dharma Centre of Canada. It consisted of study, meditation, and reflection on various Mahayana and Vajrayana teachings. The rural woodsy setting provided a fantastic locale for developing one’s Buddhist practice. Its isolation from the outside world helped focus, its ability to bring together a great short-term sangha created a great support, and its many mosquitos’ provided an excellent opportunity to develop patience and compassion.
The retreat began with a transmission of Gyalse Tokme Zangpo’s “The Thirty Seven Practices of All the Bodhisattvas”, a short Mahayana text on the activities of bodhisattvas that we as practitioners can emulate. Lama Mark instructed us to memorize a verse and slowly walk the centre’s paths with it, so I walked back and forth to Beaver Pond contemplating:
The practice of all the bodhisattvas is to arouse bodhicitta,
So as to bring freedom to all sentient beings, infinite in number,
For how can true happiness ever be found while our mothers,
Who have cared for us throughout the ages, endure such pain?
Several classes were given on this text which grounded the tantra we practiced alongside it. Whenever the retreat became difficult and I questioned why I was here instead of at home working on the thousand things I need to do for grad school I returned to this text which so succinctly put the reason for a retreat like this:
The practice of all the bodhisattvas is to take to solitary places,
Avoiding the unwholeshome, so that destructive emotions gradually fade away,
And, in the absence of distraction, virtuous practice naturally gains strength;
Whilst, with awareness clearly focused, we gain conviction in the teachings.
Thus, it both served as a reason for being here and a motivation for continuing to strive and be committed to the retreat environment.
Prior to the retreat I had just purchased my first vehicle, a blue 1986 GMC Safari that my partner named ‘Old Blue’ and that I gave the Buddhist name ‘Yeshe’. We renovated the inside to make it a camper and it was in the van that I stayed for the duration of the retreat. It was therefore quite auspicious that the main tantric practice of the retreat involved a blue colored Guru Tötrengtsäl (“Old Blue”) and Yeshe Tsogyäl (Yeshe)! Be it rote coincidence or some other force at work, the connection between my home for the retreat and the practice inspired me to dive into the practice without reservation. Group practices with fellow retreatants in both the temple and the cozy living room of Hill House gave a great base for the solo practices throughout the day and the clear dedication of others gave me lots of inspiration.
For me, the real heart of the retreat’s teachings was their emphasis on Mahāmudra and Dzogchen. Lama Mark would point out the description of mind’s nature in the preliminary instructions, the mahayana texts he transmitted, and the sadhanas we practiced daily. For several days I spent my free time trying to penetrate a particularly lucid description Lama Mark said in one of his teachings: “pristine, loving, non-clinging awareness.” I came to realize that this is precisely the place where all these texts are seeking to get you to, and I began reading the texts in a brand new light. The Mahamudra teachings culminated in the final transmission of the retreat, The Single Sufficient Path by Gampopa, which to me summed up the whole retreat. All of this conventional practice may seem unnecessary from the viewpoint of the ultimate nature of mind, but we still do it. As it states, “Mahamudra has no cause, yet faith and devotion is the cause… Practice the guru yoga three times during the day and three times at night with faith, devotion, and respectfulness.” This text helped resolve my doubts about the necessity of all this sadhana practice (which my Zen bones want to skip over into the completion stages) and solidified the belief that this retreat was indeed a worthwhile time.
The following week I was slated to give a lecture on Buddhist Mysticism at the University of Ottawa. I went over the standard academic definitions and examples of mysticism in Buddhism, but thanks to the retreat was able to go further. I was able to speak of my own meditative experience and gave a full reading of The Single Sufficient Path. While at the beginning of the retreat my main purpose there was to “let destructive emotions settle and virtuous practice take its place”, I came to realize that the real value of retreat work is how it is able to positively impact those outside of retreat. Whether those students had an experience of ‘liberation upon hearing’ with Gampopa’s text or it simply satiated their academic interest, my experience at the Dharma Centre of Canada allowed me to engage with the material and share it like I hadn’t before. I have no doubt it will continue to inform my practice and teaching and continue to positively manifest in myriad ways in the future.
Forty-four fortunate daughters and sons received precious dzogchen teachings from the text “Self-Liberation through Naked Awareness” written by Guru Rinpoche. Lama Lena Yeshe Kaytup bestowed the teachings over five days at the Dharma Centre of Canada.
We arrived at the land of many spirits: land spirits, birds, deer་, bear (although we did not see any) as well as scampering chipmunks. We rejoiced in greeting old friends- those we only see at these retreats and yet who feel like our closest companions. New friends appeared as well and touched our hearts. The land welcomed us and supported us in many ways- deep peace, silence, shelter and amazing food.
We arose before dawn to begin our days, synergizing our energy and assisting one another in practice. We walked down from the Hermitage half awake, in the quiet dark of the woods to sit in the temple. Before we knew it the birds began their first calls and the high circular window let in the first sign of light and we arose from our cushions, amazed.
Breakfast followed and then a time of karma yoga. I worked on the weeding patrol and was surrounded by mosquitoes but protected by my screen jacket. By the time the sun cleared the tall trees, it was time for another session of meditation and then a teaching with Lama Lena.
Lama Lena was so generous with us, working tirelessly to point out our true essence to us over and over again, answering our many questions and addressing our varying needs. Lama Lena made time for each person and met us exactly where we were. Many of us took refuge with Lama Lena in a ceremony requested by her students.
Our afternoons were for rest and then in the late afternoon we met in the temple for another teaching session. After sunset, our final practice session occurred and then off to sleep. Often throughout our retreat, we heard each other practicing outdoors in various places in the woods, under the canopy of the Buddha statue or close to the main house. Thus we got to know each other in spite of practical silence that we observed during the retreat. The last night we made a tsok offering and then listened to a poem, some songs and watched the dance of dharmadatu unfold in front of us.
It was a glorious retreat! And we will all look forward to being back at the Centre again and as soon as possible. As one retreatant said, “What more could a girl want than to stay longer?”
Heart-felt thanks to all those who made this retreat possible and to Lama Lena for her clear vision and open-heartedness.
See you next year!!
This past summer my reflection took me to a perfect place. A few weeks in a very special site, lush green with pine forests, mirrored lakes, paths with many hidden surprises for those with awareness to take note. If you listen the buildings speak and tell you their stories, where sky and ground meet; The Dharma Centre of Canada.
Gathered on our cushions and chairs wrapped in the pouring sunshine, Terry Hagan (co-resident teacher at the DCC) takes little time in getting curious meditators moving, after all this retreat is called Life Moves… and, so it does. Recognising that every movement is a place for self-awareness, we notice and explore the quality of what is present, rediscovering with the eyes and senses of a child. Here we do not produce art but become art, a place of play that opens the mind. It is the discovery that in each moment of watching, we are moved and in that moment, there is an understanding of connection; you and me and him and her and they. This subtle dialogue, this watching, this following, makes my body want to curl like a question mark around everything! Like the excitement of finding the hidden riddle and unwrapping it in a dance where the walls and everything else comes to meet you.
To the passerby it might not be evident that the body is finding freedom by moving just as the mind does, coming and going. Terry’s subtle suggestions and prompts help us discover the language of movement, while offering support for rest. We tune into the space of the room to see the story it holds. It has words and phrases, exclamations and questions. A whole vocabulary of becoming, being and passing away. It feels like a fine vibration and we look very closely to see it and to feel it express itself, some dramas, some adventures and yes, even some comedies! It becomes an entire platform for seeing. A surge of gratitude bursts for this fine old body as we are taught to linger in the stop position where clarity and insight surfaces and momentarily we see the truth.
While there is no music playing, we learn to tune our bodies, every motion at first a clumsy note and then more tuning and following until a kind of riding out with naming and recognising arises and then - bliss. Through many glimpses we can see evidence of spaces between the notes. Do they have something to say? We have expanded our awareness to see new again.
In the last hours we each courageously play one-at-a-time, moving together with Terry’s indefatigable support equally giving fortification and brace when needed. It is remarkable to witness the vulnerabilities wash away. How has this unfolding happened so effortlessly? A sense of deep gratitude for the continuous and extraordinary energy, generosity and kindness.
“Reflection needs supportive circumstances. When it finds it, it says loosen your belt, sit back and stay a while. It settles deep in the places you have forgotten. It watches the tea steep, small billows that curl, reminders that it is okay do it all… sl-ow-ly”
'Working with Amerta movement in Life Moves invites exploration of such a living, dynamic state of awareness. A simultaneous practice of deep intuition and inquisitive engagement, I found it opened a path for echoes of patterns, blockages, karma to show themselves in emerging relationship with movement and surroundings. Absolutely the most fun I've ever had in a meditative practice, while thoroughly challenging my edges and creating opportunities for growth through vulnerability. Thank you so much for the opportunity to learn this way! Lovers of movement, don’t hesitate for a moment.’ Jesse Mclellan
'The retreat provided me with a wonderful experience to getting in touch with my inner child through meditation and movement. I gained a lot of insights on how to move my body in an efficient manner by letting go of the previous conditioning and allowing the body to speak through it's own language. I never realized how stiff and inefficient my walk was until this retreat. Now, I have a greater appreciation for my body and it’s ways of communicating with the world. ‘ Prakhar Bhardwaj
In this retreat, Tryg and Trudy skillfully wove a beautiful tapestry on the nature of impermanence and the preciousness of our human lives. Trudy offered deep guided meditations including experiencing the dissolution of the body at death.
Trudy presented “The Five Invitations: Discovering What Death Can Teach Us About Living Fully” by Frank Ostaseski. Each day we explored one invitation which included: Don’t Wait; Welcome everything and Push away Nothing; Bring your whole Self to the Experience; Find a Place of Rest in the Middle of Things; and Cultivate Don’t Know Mind.
Sitting in circle, we had many opportunities to share our personal life experiences. Some of us have had near-death experiences and all have also lost loved ones.
We learned Buddhist prayers on loving kindness, gratitude for our precious human lives and sharing the merit of our practices with all sentient beings. Living and embodying these practices gives greater meaning to our lives.
Tryg’s exposition on the major Arcana cards of the Tarot were enhanced by beautiful hand-made felt tapestries. It was the first time I could appreciate the interconnectedness of these archetypal energies. I found that deeply revealing into our own natures and our potential for growth. It was awesome.
'I had the good fortune to participate in two retreats at the Dharma Center during August 2019. Both “The Life Moves” and “Kindness, Death / Dying Tarot” retreats left me feeling not only happier and more at peace but also energized. The teachers, the staff and those participating in the retreat made the experience very rewarding. The teachers who were Terry, Tryg and Trudy, were not only exceptionally knowledgeable but also provided a loving, kindness space to learn and share in. The students, even though they were from different backgrounds, experiences and a wide range of ages (19 to 80) came together and were supportive throughout the entire time I was there. The staff was wonderful. Marion, who answered all my questions on the phone and by email, lent me a flashlight and clock which I had forgotten to bring. The food was deliciously satisfying and nutritious. It was prepared with love and delightful to the eye. I highly recommend the Dharma Centre. The teachers and staff care about those who seek refuge there and welcome everyone from the beginner to the advanced. A big thank you to all of you.' Gail from the Niagara Region
'How wonderful the seeds planted in the sharings of the circle!! For this being, there was first some questions about what it means to live with kindfull-ness. These seemed to naturally lead to wondering about living skillfully in general, with an awareness of the impermanence embedded in life.. The many questions and meditations weaving their way into the depth, dreams responded with symbols from the Western mystery tradition!?! Wow! What a wonderful mystery of interconnections that rekindles the preciousness of practice. So much gratefulness for these profound teachings.' Marie-Andree
I was recently asked to become part of the Spiritual Director ‘s group of the Dharma Centre. The idea behind the spiritual directors is to have a group of senior students that can act as a guiding voice to help support the DC remaining true to the vision of its guiding teacher Namgyal Rinpoche. I have thought a lot recently about lineage and tradition and what place they have in my own life as well as in the life of the D.C. and the spreading of the Buddha Dharma in the west.
The Dharma at its essence is spontaneous open and free yet it is traditions that have allowed beings to study and practice in meaningful ways that lead to this essence. Without being anchored in tradition or without the guidance of a qualified teacher it is very easy to lose one's way. One of the big questions for us as a community is how do we carry these traditions forward and remain relevant to the changing times. No easy answers, but one we can and are working together on. The vast array of teachings and practices that Namgyal Rinpoche offered us have an incredible transformative power to those who choose to sincerely apply them. I feel we have an obligation to carry this forward to the best of our abilities and make sure we make these teachings accessible and relevant to the changing times. Whenever I step foot on DC property I feel the powerful presence of Rinpoche and the many teachings and Dharma truths that he so skillfully manifested. What will we manifest ? What will we bring forward ? What a joy to be part of this ! The D.C board are a hard working group that are committed to the continuing unfoldment of Namgyal Rinpoche’s vision and I am honoured that they want me to be part of this. May all beings awaken quickly !
Jack Connelly, Spiritual Director
Some of you may remember me from my involvement in the Dharma Centre many years ago, as a member of the first Academy, co-ordinator of a Summer School in the 1990s, and frequent retreater when Namgyal Rinpoche was alive. Since I have been living in BC for over a decade, my participation in the DC has been minimal. But after a fortuitous meeting with Lama Mark on the ferry to Galiano Island, I agreed to return to the Dharma Centre for the first time in five years to participate in a Strategic Planning session last October.
Shelane Donoghue explained the purpose of the Strategic Planning process: “Over a year ago, the staff articulated to me the difficulty in marketing DCC courses because the vision of the DCC was not a clear and unified vision shared by the Spiritual Directors, Resident Teachers and the Board. I brought these concerns forward to the Spiritual Directors who decided we needed a process to articulate the unique aspects of the DCC…”
Joining in the visioning process were Spiritual Directors (Lama Mark Webber and Terry Hagan) Board members (Shelane Donoghue, Chris Von Baeyer, Monique Truax, Steven Gellman), Resident Teacher (Mala Sikka) and staff (Marion Herlet and Marta Castiglioni), with Tracy Sheridan as our Human Resources consultant. In developing the Strategic Plan, we started with the DC Mission statement, which the Board had previously crafted and approved. From there, we articulated the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats that we saw as impacting the DC’s ability to embody its Mission. From that analysis, we generated a vision for the DC:
“By 2025, the Dharma Centre of Canada will manifest a Centre of Excellence for the study, contemplation and practice of Buddha Dharma. The Dharma Centre will have strong foundation of committed Spiritual Directors, Resident and Visiting Teachers, Practitioners in Residence, Board of Directors and Staff members, imbued with a love of Dharma, to support the operation of a multi-purpose Dharma - retreat and study facility, including community outreach.”
We then articulated ten Strategic Goals that we would work to achieve over the next few years. Finally, each participant in the session agreed to take a leadership role in creating plans and engaging support from DC members to make progress towards particular goals.
At the AGM, DC members voted to approve the Strategic Plan, which gave the new Board a clear mandate to proceed with making our shared vision a reality. Since then, work has commenced on several goals, including establishment of a Practitioner Support Fund, and improved Financial Management/Administration processes. A follow-up meeting with Spiritual Directors is slated to discuss how the DC can create a curriculum structured around the “Namgyal Banner” teachers, focused on attracting new, younger members and reducing our reliance on rentals to outside groups. After that meeting, we expect to involve a Marketing consultant to guide us in showcasing the DC’s magnificent heritage to an expanded membership.
I felt it was particularly auspicious that our Strategic Plan was articulated on the fifteenth anniversary of Namgyal Rinpoche’s passing. I hope that the love of Dharma and the desire for liberation that he imbued in all of us will give us the determination and sustained focus needed to bring our shared vision to fruition. I sincerely wish that the DC will continue to offer many beings the precious opportunity for Dharma study and practice that it offered me over thirty-five years ago.
Christine Wihak, Program & Strategic Planning Chair
Death and Impermanence, one of the Common Preliminary Vajrayana Foundation Practices, is such a fundamental aspect to our meditations no matter what tradition or path we follow. It cuts deep, extends beyond and touches all.
This past Fall I experienced a truly life altering experience. A friend of mine and Dharma practitioner was dying of cancer. We weren’t sure how long she had to live. We all hoped it would be months. Since she had been receiving teachings from Lama Mark Webber (Lama Yongdu Gyaltsen), a very close mutual friend asked if Lama Mark would bestow the Phowa Transmission in Toronto to our dear friend. Our friend made her way from the hospital in pain with determination to 33 Marion St. Surrounded by cushions and friends we shared bittersweet tears as this blessing and transmission was bestowed.
Unfortunately, our friend was not well enough to attend the Phowa retreat the following week at the DCC with Lama Mark. A few of us did, however, have the great fortune to then travel to the DCC to continue to receive Orgyen Nuden Dorje’s “Indispensable Practice of Consciousness Transference (Phowa) Associated with the Means of Attainment of Amitabha”, entitled “The Ruby Garland”; transmitted through Lama Mark Webber as he had received and was given permission to teach from one of his beloved teachers, Drikung Master Lho Ontul Rinpoche. In the DCC Temple, we received the empowerment, received instructions and practiced Phowa daily as a group with our friend in our heart and prayers.
Only a few weeks later, we then found ourselves with our friend on her death bed. Feverishly we would practice the text with her in Princess Margaret Hospital with the loving support and respect of her dear and devoted parents, her brother and sister-in-law. Between sessions we did rounds and rounds of Vajrasattva practice. We watched our friend mouth the Vajrasattva mantra hours before her death. After she passed, in the wee morning hours, we practiced the Phowa Sadhana one last time for her. Some of us beside her bed, others in their home and Lama Mark in Europe. We watched death’s moments of confusion and wandering become a deepening calm and peaceful state of rest and surrender.
Two weeks later Lama Mark returned to Toronto. At 33 Marion we asked questions about our experience and practice with our friend as she was dying. Only a few weeks had passed from the moment Lama Mark had first arrived in Toronto.
I feel so humble and fortunate to have practiced these teachings in such a profound and meaningful way. What a great community of Dharma Practitioners we have going to the DDC week after week, year after year. These Gurus and Teachings change our life and our death.
I look forward to further explore, contemplate, train and deepen these teachings and other Amitabha Practices when Lho Ontul Rinpoche returns with Lama Mark Webber, and hopefully Ratna Rinpoche, in June (2019) at the DCC. Perhaps we’ll see you there…?
When my time comes to transfer over, my only wish, is that I too will be surrounded in prayers, love and wisdom, by teachers, practitioners and friends.
Blessings to All!
Shelane Donoghue, President
Dear Sangha,The following is a brief update on the Garuda Project at the Dharma Centre in Kinmount, ON. We have almost reached our financial goal of our revised amount needed ($5500.00) for repairs on the Pavilion and for the installation of the Garuda’s. We have approximately $1000.00 left to raise.All donations to date we are truly grateful for, including a healthy donation from the Dharma Centre!
David Baillie is raring to get started on the work required to bring this project to completion. It is currently a waiting game until the ground has thawed and dried up to allow a secure scaffolding system to be built. The steel sheets were delivered last autumn to provide much needed support to the front of the building. This project has required to date many highly skilled minds to determine the safest way to proceed in order to secure the building and the Garuda’s to last a very long time.
As mentioned previously these people include Roy Brown, Architect, the consultation of an Engineer, along with Sculptors Ted Bieler an Brian Bamford, not to mention our highly innovative Installer/Sustainability expert David Baillie.
A formidable amount of research has been underway in 2018 to resolve various issues such as wood rot, correction of destabilizing beams with steel panels and the design of appropriate hardware to hang the Garuda’s at the appropriate angle, etc. And then of course there were issues with the weather and, scheduling, that interfered with the work going ahead in October, as was originally announced.We will notify everyone (with pictures) as soon as this long awaited Garuda Project has reached a conclusion!
Heather Rigby M.F.A.
For donations to support the Garuda Project please send funds by cheque or through e-transfer to the Geruda Project Fund. Cheques should be made payable to the Dharma Centre of Canada, 1267 Galway Road, Kinmount, Ontario, K0M 2A0, Canada and electronic funds can be sent to email@example.com. We also accept donations via paypal and credit card. For this please visit our website at:www.dharmacentre.org/donate and follow the link on the page. Tax receipts for donations will be issued by the Dharma Centre of Canada.
It is cold, still, frozen and brilliantly clear outside. I sit alone in the quiet of the Main House, the warmth of the wood stove rising up to the second floor. It is Christmas Eve.
Deep in the woods I know my colleagues sit in their cabins-- in retreat for the winter months. I feel the reassuring presence of the long history of our lineage in the halls and walls of this building, and the hills and trees of the land, providing refuge for us as we each practice in our spaces across the property.
In my current role as Chair of the Board it has been a wonderful opportunity this winter to spend time at the Dharma Centre. Along with a rotating cadre of my colleagues, we have chosen to experiment with an administrative model for these three months in which board members and other volunteers take the reins of the administration, in the slow months, so our administrators can be in retreat.
The advantage is two-fold. Administrators are provided with the chance to participate fully in the primary mission of our organization—to use the resources of the property to practice for the sake of all beings. As they return to their administrative roles in the Spring, a deepened connection with the DCC mission is provided, and their ability to serve the needs of all retreatants is enhanced.
For board members and other volunteers, the opportunity to spend time in the Main House and the office (as well as experiencing a short, working retreat on the property for several days or weeks) gives us direct and first-hand experience into the workings of the centre. Clearly this can only serve our ability to have clear insight in our decision-making process.
Working together, practicing together and serving together in these winter months has brought the board and the administrators closer in perspective and alignment. May our discoveries and experiences deepen our awareness about the operations and mission of our beloved Centre, and may all beings be served by our explorations.
Chris von Baeyer, Chairman of Board
My time at the Dharma Centre is nearing 2 years. A large part of this I have been working in service of those who come here to seek, explore and practice the Dharma. I have had the great fortune to receive many precious teachings and meet extraordinary practitioners. Through the kind and generous support of my teachers, fellow students and colleagues I was also able to undertake long solitary retreats over the past two winters delving deeply into my own practice. All of these experiences have contributed to the shaping of a unique training:
Working and doing service at the Dharma Centre can be challenging. At times it can feel like being in a large pot and being stirred. It brings the bottom to the surface. It amplifies experience. It demands to overcome the fear of suffering, to have the courage to put others first, to embrace all that presents itself and learn to remain impartial and compassionate.
Retreating at the Dharma Centre is like sinking into the embrace of the forest. Feeling supported and inspired, sensing the energy and blessings that have soaked the land over decades. Giving space to all that is coming and going, surrendering to infinite discoveries, falling in love with learning. A time where every moment is a small awakening.
Being at the Dharma Centre to me is about bridging those experiences. It is like serving a great master. It teaches one that everything is a teaching. When serving and when receiving, when being professional and when being contemplative, when being with others and when being alone. It is challenging at times and deeply humbling. It holds great gifts for anyone who is a seeker.
I truly pray that many more will continue to come to this special place to practice, to serve and to discover the infinite profound beauty of the Dharma.
Marion Herlet, Practitioner in Residence
The Dharma Centre of Canada is a place of infinite possibilities. It can be a place of refuge, samsara, nirvana, a place to serve, a place to learn, a place of love or deep suffering, a place to find the key to liberation. To me the Dharma Centre of Canada represents the golden rosary of lineage, taking refuge, and fearless devotion to awakening. I find that the intention shapes the experience.
As a Practitioner in Residence my experience is of devotion to service. There is lots of hard work and many challenges in this unusual place where people gather to find something… Service is the practice. Building merit is the aspiration.
As a retreatant, deep in the forest in Beaver Dam, the experience is of openess and grounding. Finally feeling as part of the land in all its form, deeply moved by extraordinary beauty, having the time and space to let the teaching speak strong and clear from deep inside the being. The profound silence allows to unfold treasured teachings.
Out there, free from worldly toils, the exploration is fresh and clear.
This winter's three months retreat was a unique and important time to renew one’s aspiration, reflect, study, and dive fearlessly into practice.
Still building merit.
This year, as the Dharma Centre Staff, Spiritual Advisors and the Board of Directors begin to offer another season of extraordinary blessings, my wish is that more and more people may find their way out here.
May all beings have the opportunity to attend teachings and explore at the Dharma Centre of Canada.
Marta Castiglioni, Practitioner in Residence